General Ethical Principles and Issues for all Types of Research and Innovation

  1. Research Integrity

    • Employ and faithfully apply appropriate research methods;
    • Avoid fabrication, falsification and plagiarism of research materials and data;
    • Avoid practices that undermine the integrity and trustworthiness of scientific research.
  2. Social Responsibility

    • Raise awareness of the societal impacts of research, and take appropriate remedial actions if deemed necessary.
  3. Avoidance of and openness about potential conflicts of interest
    • Be aware of, and as far as possible avoid actual or perceived conflicts of interest of the researchers and/or organisations performing the research;
    • Be transparent about and disclose relevant financial ties and/or ideological, political or institutional influences and positions.
  4. Protection of and respect for human research participants
    • Obtain informed and voluntary consent from human participants (or their legal guardians);
    • Treat human participants with due consideration for their autonomy and dignity, and minimise the risk of harm done to them in a research context;
    • Fairly distribute benefits and burdens of research, and ensure that the potential benefits of research outweigh the risk of harm caused to research participants.
  5. Protection of and respect for animals used in research
    • Incorporate practices that reduce the use of animals as much as possible in experimental settings;
    • Incorporate practices that reduce suffering of animals by less invasive techniques and better living conditions.
  6. Protection and management of data
    • Obtain consent for the collection and use of personal data;
    • Ensure the security of collected and stored data and information.
  7. Protection of researchers and the research environment
    • Ensure that researchers and staff involved in conducting the research are not exposed to serious risk of physical or psychological harm or strain as a result of the research;
    • Avoid harm to the local community as a result of any field work or experiments;
    • Avoid or minimise harm to the local environment (including animals, plants, and natural and cultural heritage) caused by any field work or experiments, and ensure that any harm done can be justified by the (potential) benefits of the research.
  8. Dissemination of research results
    • In the absence of compelling reasons to act otherwise, make research results publicly available (e.g. through open access publications). Openness regarding research findings is essential for ensuring verifiability, returning benefit to research participants, providing benefit to society, detecting misconduct, and ensuring a dialogue with fellow researchers, stakeholders and the public.